Basics of Electrical Transformers: All You Need To Know

Posted by Freelancers HUB on

A transformer is a machine that transfers electricity from one circuit to another with changing voltage levels but no difference in frequency. It's easy for transformers to change the amount of current and voltage they produce by adjusting how much power goes into them.


So, when there are surges in demand or supply drops, you can adjust the output accordingly.

Components of Electrical Transformers

Basics of Electrical Transformers

The three essential components of an electrical transformer are a magnetic core, primary winding, and secondary winding. When the power source is connected to one end of the primary coil, it produces flux following Faraday's Law (lines-of-force).


The main path for this induced magnetism connects from where it was initially produced back to itself through low reluctance paths that link between both coils forming loops called "flux links."


The core transfers the flux to a secondary winding, which helps create an opening within the magnetic circuit. This path enables more of the produced energy to be transferred from one side and into another, causing it to travel with ease through both windings that are wound on said core.


The use of this added momentum allows all sides of these coils to come together as they move back over each other like waves crashing onto shorelines around Atlantis.


The transformers all depend on a magnetic core, which is built out of thin steel sheets. The engineers construct the transformer so that there's enough space between each sheet so they can create an uninterrupted line for magnetism to flow through.

How Electrical Transformers Work?

Transformers are electromagnets that convert electrical power from one circuit to another.


This process begins when an electric current enters a transformer via the connection with its primary coil. The coil winds around part of the core and converts this flow into electromagnetic waves before passing through it and converted to electricity by secondary windings. 


Transformers turn our everyday activities in homes across America like watching TV or charging phones possible because they can take any voltage (110-120 volts) and change it up for different circuits' needs. Whether 120 volts is needed for old appliances such as TVs or microwaves or 240 volts are required for newer ones, including dishwashers & clothes washers/dryers, an efficient transformer can handle all.

Types of Electrical Transformers

Electrical transformers are mysterious instruments that convert electricity from one voltage to another. They can be classified by their end-use, construction, supply, and purpose.

Based on Design

Core Type Transformer

This transformer is shaped like a rectangle with two horizontal sections and vertical limbs. One limb has cylindrical coils on it, which convert the power from high voltage (HV) to low voltage (LV).


Shell Type Transformer

The Shell-type transformer has a double magnetic circuit and two outer limbs. The central limb is used as the primary coil. In contrast, both external ones are secondary coils that create an electromagnetic field for inducing a voltage into power electrical devices or motors.

Based on Power Supply

Single Phase Transformer

A single-phase transformer, which is the simpler of two types. A single-phase unit can be used in a three-way system and offer similar benefits to an external six-way connection. Its advantages include regulating voltage per leg independently when dealing with high power loads or transferring energy for distance requirements.


Three Phase Transformer

A triple-phase transformer is a device that you can use to turn single-phase power into three-phase. It's made up of 3 sets of primary and secondary windings, forming the bank for each phase, giving them their separate control settings.


Although typically only ever seen in industrial sites like factories or large offices where high energy levels are needed, they're becoming more common as technology advances and companies seek ways to save money on electricity usage.

Based on Purpose

Step Up Transformer

This type of transformer has a more substantial voltage than its counterpart. If the second set is more intricately woven and has more turns, then you know that this will create an even greater current in output for your appliances to use!


Step Down Transformer

This type of transformer has a second winding on the same core and provides an opposite voltage to what you’re looking for. They are typically used when stepping down the power transmission level, sometimes at rural sites where it is hard to find enough power sources or energy storage capacity.

The Efficiency of Electrical Transformers

An electrical transformer’s vast majority of energy is transmitted from stationary coil to stationary coil with no friction or windage losses. Copper and iron are the two primary sources of loss, but copper losses happen because it heats up while electricity flows through its winding due to a lack of air that would conduct heat away much more efficiently.


Iron lags behind magnetic molecules within the center core which causes even greater power loss than what could have been saved by preventing copper's healing rate.


The alternating of the magnetic flux can cause friction in a transformer, which then produces heat and causes power loss. If you use special steel alloys for your core construction, though, this issue is reduced significantly because it's more durable than regular metal would be.


An electrical transformer's efficiency is represented by the ratio of power output at a secondary winding to the input at the primary. The ideal range would be 94-96%. This means that for every 100 units put into an electric circuit, you can expect anywhere from 96 out or 94 back!

Usages of Electrical Transformers

A transformer is an electrical device that you can use to change the voltage in an AC circuit. They do this by stepping up or lowering the resistance level through induction. 


Transformers also come with voltages as either high-voltage, low-current transformers for distribution and control purposes. Or medium-voltage circuits that have flowed from many directions at once, like pumping stations needed to manage significant water levels on different sides of a dam.


These types are required in power generation units and industries where large amounts of electricity need constant management due to their size. For example, railways need input power constantly while traveling across long distances over periods.

Choose The Right One From Electric Supply Depot

Are you planning to upgrade the power supply of your home or office? It’s time to pick a suitable transformer for the safety of the electrical equipment and your space.


Electric Supply Depot offers a wide range of transformers for both low and heavy-duty usages. Take a tour of the inventory and click the right one for you.


Share this post



← Older Post Newer Post →